Cognitive Neuroscience


Alzheimer’s & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer’s Association




Formal publication: May 2024

Authors: Kalaria, R., Maestre, G., Mahinrad, S., Acosta, D. M., Akinyemi, R. O., Alladi, S., Allegri, R. F., Arshad, F., Babalola, D. O., Baiyewu, O., Bak, T. H., Bellaj, T., Brodie-Mends, D. K., Carrillo, M. C., Celestin, K. K., Damasceno, A., de Silva, R. K., de Silva, R., Djibuti, M., Dreyer, A. J., … Ismail, O.

Abstract: Two of every three persons living with dementia reside in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The projected increase in global dementia rates is expected to affect LMICs disproportionately. However, the majority of global dementia care costs occur in high-income countries (HICs), with dementia research predominantly focusing on HICs. This imbalance necessitates LMIC-focused research to ensure that characterization of dementia accurately reflects the involvement and specificities of diverse populations. Development of effective preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches for dementia in LMICs requires targeted, personalized, and harmonized efforts. Our article represents timely discussions at the 2022 Symposium on Dementia and Brain Aging in LMICs that identified the foremost opportunities to advance dementia research, differential diagnosis, use of neuropsychometric tools, awareness, and treatment options. We highlight key topics discussed at the meeting and provide future recommendations to foster a more equitable landscape for dementia prevention, diagnosis, care, policy, and management in LMICs. HIGHLIGHTS: Two-thirds of persons with dementia live in LMICs, yet research and costs are skewed toward HICs. LMICs expect dementia prevalence to more than double, accompanied by socioeconomic disparities. The 2022 Symposium on Dementia in LMICs addressed advances in research, diagnosis, prevention, and policy. The Nairobi Declaration urges global action to enhance dementia outcomes in LMICs.